How wetlands are formed?
A wetland is an area of land that is either covered by water or saturated with water. Wetlands form on floodplains where periodic flooding or high water tables provide sufficient moisture. These “riparian” wetlands may undergo constant change as rivers and streams form new channels and when floods scour the floodplain or deposit new material. The water is often groundwater, seeping up from an aquifer or spring. A wetland’s water can also come from a nearby river or lake.
Environmental Functions of Wetlands
What is Eutrophication?
Abundance of particulate substances (phytoplankton, zooplankton, bacteria, fungi and debris) that determine the turbidity and colouration of the water;
abundance of inorganic chemicals such ammonia, nitrites, hydrogen sulphide etc. that in the drinking water treatment plants induce the formation of harmful substances such as nitrosamines suspected of mutagenicity
Abundance of organic substances that give the water disagreeable odours or tastes, barely masked by chlorination in the case of drinking water. These substances, moreover, form complex chemical compounds that prevent normal purification processes and are deposited on the walls of the water purifier inlet tubes, accelerating corrosion and limiting the flow rate
- The water acquires disagreeable odours or tastes (of earth, of rotten fish, of cloves, of watermelon, etc.) due to the presence of particular algae
- Disappearance or significant reduction of quality fish with very negative effects on fishing (instead of quality species such as trout undesirable ones such as carp become established)
- Possible affirmation of toxic algae with potential damage to the population and animals drinking the affected water
- Prohibition of touristic use of the lake and bathing, due to both the foul odour on the shores caused by the presence of certain algae, as well as the turbidity and anything but clean and attractive appearance of the water; bathing is dangerous because certain algae cause skin irritation
- Reduction of oxygen concentration, especially in the deeper layers of the lake at the end of summer and in autumn.
What is Phytoremediation?
Use of green plants and their microorganisms that associate with their roots, for cleaning up heavy metals and other contaminants in soil and water which pollute the environment. It is a natural mechanism that uses plants to remove, transfer, stabilize, and/or destroy contaminants.
Remediation – Treatment for environmental damage”